Shura Council (Acre)
|Islamic Emirate of Acre
|Appointment by an independent body
|Judge term length
|No term limit
The Shura Council is the highest court in Acre's judicial system, and the sole court capable of arbitrating on matters of constitutional law; the court is also capable of ruling on civil and criminal law, though has not done so thus far. Whereas in most of the Arabic world, wherein a Shura council (Shura meaning consultation) refers to a representative body, in Acre the Shura refers to the body's consultation with the law when deliberating on judicial affairs.
As the highest court in the land, the Shura Council is capable of ruling on all civil, criminal, and constitutional cases; it is also the sole body capable of ruling on constitutional law. Unlike many supreme courts, it does not need a case to be brought to it, and can decide to rule on a case itself.
In practice, the Shura Council has never ruled on any civil or criminal case, preferring to leave such issues to lower courts. It also rarely meets to discuss constitutional law, only doing so when a particularly controversial bill is passed by Parliament.
The Akkan Parliament enjoys parliamentary supremacy, granting them sovereignty over all other branches of government including the Shura Council. Lacking a codified constitution, Parliament enjoys great flexibility in what it can pass. The Shura Council can declare a bill unconstitutional, after which it is sent back to the Parliament for a second reading. If it again passes, any contradicting bills passed by an earlier session of Parliament are rendered unconstitutional instead. By convention however, the Shura Council's ruling carries great weight within Parliament, and is usually sufficient to cause a change in the bill's contents.
Alongside its constitutional powers, the Shura Council can also release advisory notes for legislators - these notes however lack any legal power, and can be ignored entirely by Parliament.
Members of the Shura Council are appointed by an independent committee; the assent of Parliament or the Emir is unnecessary for appointments. The Council is limited to seven judges, though is able to operate with fewer members if the committee does not wish to appoint additional judges. Members serve either until death or resignation. In principle, Parliament can remove a member of the Shura Council for any reason, though it has never done so.