Free State of Türenor
Türenor, officially the Free State of Türenor, is a independent micronation that claims the territory of Bir Tawil, since that the territory is seen as terra nullius by the International Law. Türenor became an independent state with the Basic Law of the Free State of Türenor, written on May 26, 2013. With a claimed area of 2,060 km2 (795 sq mi), Türenor is organised as a Parliamentary Republic, where the President, elected by the Senate, acts as Head of State and the Prime Minister, appointed by the President, rules as Head of Government.
Free State of Türenor
|Legislature||Senate of Türenor|
|Establishment||May 26th, 2013|
|2,060 km2 (800 sq mi)|
On 19 January 1899, an agreement between the United Kingdom and Egypt relating to the administration of Sudan defined "Soudan" as the "territories south of the 22nd parallel of latitude". It contained a provision that would give Egypt control of the Red Sea port of Suakin, but an amendment on 10 July 1899 gave Suakin to Sudan instead.
On 4 November 1902, the UK drew a separate "administrative boundary", intended to reflect the actual use of the land by the tribes in the region. Bir Tawil was grazing land used by the Ababda tribe based near Aswan, and thus was placed under Egyptian administration from Cairo. Similarly, the Hala'ib Triangle to the northeast was placed under the British governor of Sudan, because its inhabitants were culturally closer to Khartoum.
Egypt claims the original border from 1899, the 22nd parallel, which would place the Hala'ib Triangle within Egypt and the Bir Tawil area within Sudan. Sudan, however, claims the administrative border of 1902, which would put Hala'ib within Sudan, and Bir Tawil within Egypt. As a result, both states claim Hala'ib and neither claims the much less valuable Bir Tawil area, which is only a tenth the size, and has no permanent settlements or access to the sea. There is no basis in international law for either Sudan or Egypt to claim both territories, and neither nation is willing to cede Hala'ib.
With no third state claiming the neglected area, the Basic Law of Türenor was approved in 2013, claiming Bir Tawil as national territory of the Free State of Türenor.
Türenor has a claimed territory of 2,060 km2 (795 sq mi) in size. The length of its northern and southern borders are 95 kilometres (59 mi) and 46 kilometres (29 mi) respectively; the length of its eastern and western borders are 26 kilometres (16 mi) and 49 kilometres (30 mi) respectively. In the north of the area is the mountain Jabal Tawil (جبل طويل), with a height of 459 metres (1,506 ft). In the east is Jebel Hagar ez Zarqa, with a height of 662 metres (2,172 ft). In the south is the Wadi Tawil (وادي طويل), also called Khawr Abū Bard.
Türenor's climate is, according to the Köppen climate classification, a very hot desert climate. During the summer months, approximately three-quarters of the year, temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104 °F), while its hottest three months (June–August) can see it as high as 45 °C (113 °F). During the brief winters, however (December and January being its mildest months), Türenor can experience milder temperatures with 26 °C (79 °F) as its usual temperature peak.
Because the territory is far from the ocean (being at least 200 km (120 mi) away from the Red Sea), the diurnal temperature range throughout the region is large, varying from 18 to 20 °C (32 to 36 °F), year-round.