Republic of the Auckland Islands
Federal Republic of the Auckland Islands
|Motto: Ab Aeterno|
|Government||Federal Presidential Republic|
• President of the Islands
• Prime Minister
|Legislature||Council of the Islands|
|Establishment||21 December 2011|
|Time zone||(UTC +12)|
The Auckland Islands, officially the Federal Republic of the Auckland Islands, are an insular micronation located in south Pacific. Its territory includes the archipelago of the Auckland Islands.
Auckland Island, the main island, has an approximate land area of 510 km2 (197 sq mi), and a length of 42 km (26 mi). It is notable for its steep cliffs and rugged terrain, which rises to over 600 m (1,969 ft). Prominent peaks include Cavern Peak (650 m/2,133 ft), Mount Raynal (635 m/2,083 ft), Mount D'Urville (630 m/2,067 ft), Mount Easton (610 m/2,001 ft), and the Tower of Babel (550 m/1,804 ft). The southern end of the island broadens to a width of 26 km (16 mi). Here, the narrow channel of Carnley Harbour (the Adams Straits on some maps) separates the main island from the roughly triangular Adams Island (area approximately 100 km2/39 sq mi), which is even more mountainous, reaching a height of 705 m (2,313 ft) at Mount Dick. The channel is the remains of the crater of an extinct volcano, and Adams Island and the southern part of the main island form the crater rim. The group includes numerous other smaller islands, notably Disappointment Island (10 km/6.2 mi northwest of the main island) and Enderby Island (1 km/0.62 mi off the northern tip of the main island), each covering less than 5 km2 (2 sq mi). The main island features many sharply incised inlets, notably Port Ross at the northern end. Most of the islands originated volcanically, with the archipelago dominated by two 12 million year old Miocene volcanoes, subsequently eroded and dissected. These rest on older volcanic rocks 15-25 million years old with some older granites and fossil-bearing sedimentary rocks from around 100 million years ago.
The islands in the archipelago, and part of the Republic, are:
- Auckland Island
- Adams Island
- Enderby Island
- Disappointment Island
- Ewing Island
- Dundas Island
- Green Island
- The surrounding islets
Auckland Island is the main island of the Auckland Islands. The island has an approximate land area of 510 square kilometres (200 sq mi), and is 42 kilometres (26 mi) long. It is notable for its steep cliffs and rugged terrain, which rises to over 600 m (1,969 ft). Prominent peaks include Cavern Peak (650 m/2,133 ft), Mount Raynal (635 m/2,083 ft), Mount D'Urville (630 m/2,067 ft), Mount Easton (610 m/2,001 ft), and the Tower of Babel (550 m/1,804 ft).
The southern end of Auckland Island broadens to a width of 26 km (16 mi) where a narrow channel, known as Carnley Harbour or the Adams Straits, separates it from the roughly triangular Adams Island (area approximately 100 km2/39 sq mi), which is even more mountainous, reaching a height of 705 m (2,313 ft) at Mount Dick. The channel is the remnant of the crater of an extinct volcano, with Adams Island, and the southern part of Auckland Island forming the crater rim.
The micronation is a Republic. The Head of State is the President of the Islands, elected by universal suffrage by the people and appointed for life. The Head of the government is the Prime Minister, elected by the people every 5 years. Legislative power is exercised by the parliament, the Council of the Islands. It consists of 20 members. The executive power is exercised jointly by the Prime Minister and the President.
The Parliament of the Auckland Islands is the Council of the Islands. In the Council there are 20 members. Seven of them are the chancellors of the Cantons and of the Special Territories The remaining 13 are elected by the people in districts, one for each state or territory. Hooker Canton elects 2 members, Tutanekai Hinemoa elects 2 members, Musgrave elects 2 members, Carnley elects 2 members, Adams Island elects 2 members, Enderby and Ewing Islands elects 2 members and Disappointment Island elects 1 member.
The territory is divided in Cantons and Special Territories. Overall, there are 5 Cantons and 2 Special Territories. The Chancellors of the Cantons and of the Special Territories are part of the Parliament of the Islands, together with 13, elected by the people, members.
The Cantons include large areas of land. They are:
- Hooker Canton
- Tutanekai Hinemoa Canton
- Musgrave Canton
- Carnley Canton
- Adams Island Canton
The Special Territories are small and have been established on those small islands particularly difficult to reach or inaccessible. They are:
- Enderby and Ewing Islands Special Territory
- Disappointment Island Special Territory