Parliament of Athor
Parliament of Athor
|1st Parliament of Athor|
|Houses||House of Councillors|
House of Assembly
|Founded||21 December 2022|
since 21 December 2022
House of Assembly voting system
The Parliament of Athor is the primary legislature of the Islamic Emirate of Athor. Parliament is bicameral but consists of three parts - consisting of the Monarch (Emir-in-Parliament), the House of Councillors and the House of Assembly.
The House of Assembly is the lower and elected house of parliament and members are elected by proportional representation. Members are known as Members of Parliament. The House of Councillors is the upper house of parliament and is appointed by the Monarch, sometimes on the advice of the Prime Minister. Members of the upper house are known as Councillors.
The government can originate from either house but by convention is typically appointed from the lower house.
Composition and Powers
The legislative authority has three parts. The monarch, the House of Councillors and the House of Assembly. No individual may be a member of both Houses simultaneously.
Royal Assent of the Monarch is required for all Bills to become law. The Crown also has executive powers which do not depend on Parliament including the power to make treaties, declare war, award honours, and appoint officers and civil servants.
The Monarch also appoints the Prime Minister, who then forms a government from members of the Houses of Parliament.
State Opening of Parliament
At the start of each parliamentary term, there is a ceremony and address to parliament from the monarch.
The monarch's speech is known as the Speech From the Throne. It typically goes over the government's agenda for the coming term and the Prime Minister and Cabinet may help prepare the speech. The speech typically reflects the legislative agenda for which the Government intends to seek the agreement of both Houses of Parliament.
Legislative Procedure and Functions
Both houses are presided over by a speaker. The approval of the Sovereign is typically required before the election of the Speaker becomes valid.
Both Houses may decide questions by voice vote. Members shout out "Aye" and "No" in the House of Assembly or "Content" and "Not-Content" in the House of Councillors and the presiding officer declares the result.
Laws can be made by Acts of Parliament. Laws, in draft form known as bills, may be introduced by any member of either House. A bill introduced by a Minister or a Government MP is known as a "Government Bill" whereas one introduced by another member is called a "Private Bill".
Each Bill goes through several stages in each House. The first stage, called the first reading, is a formality. At the second reading, the general principles of the bill are debated, and the House may vote to reject the bill. Following the second reading the third reading follows. In the House of Assembly, no further amendments may be made. In the House of Councillors further amendments to the bill may be made. Then both houses vote on the final form of the bill. If it passes, by getting an overall majority in both houses, it is given to the monarch for Royal Assent. If the assent is given then the bill becomes law.
Relationship with the Government
The Athori Government is typically accountable to the House of Assembly, however, neither the Prime Minister nor members of the Government are elected by the House. Instead the Emir requests the person they most see fit for office to form a government and become Prime Minister.
The government is accountable to parliament and can be subject to parliamentary scrutiny so are required to maintain parliamentary confidence. Ministers and government MPs can originate from either house but are subject to scrutiny from whichever house they belong to.
The foremost privilege claimed by both Houses is that of freedom of speech in debate; almost nothing said in either House may be questioned in any court or other institution outside Parliament. Both Houses also possess the power to punish breaches of their privilege.